Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Science. Show all posts

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

More on How a Single Spot in the Sahara Desert Creates the Amazon Jungle

In case you missed it, a 2006 paper titled "The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest" was recently dug up by science writer Colin Schultz. Listen below to Schultz's talk with Niagara Falls' News Talk 610 CKTB about the paper's findings:
 

As the title of the paper suggests, and as Boing Boing's Maggie Koerth-Baker helps us visualize, what "we're talking about is a patch of desert only a third the size of Florida supplying the nutrient needs of a jungle that is roughly the same size as all 48 contiguous United States." Maggie Koerth-Baker pulled this quote from the paper:
A total of 140 (± 40) Tg is deposited in the Atlantic ocean and 50 (± 15) Tg
[1 Tg = 1 million tons] reach and fertilize the Amazon basin. This is four times an older estimate, explaining a paradox regarding the source of nutrients to the Amazon forest. Swap et al suggested that while the source for minerals and nutrients in the Amazon is the dust from Africa, it was estimated that only 13 Tg of dust per year actually arrive in the Amazon. However, they pointed out that 50 Tg are needed to balance the Amazon nutrient budget. Here we show a remarkable arrangement in nature in which the mineral dust arriving at the Amazon basin from the Sahara actually originates from a single source of only ~ 0.5% of the size of the Amazon: the Bodélé depression. Located northeast of Lake Chad (17°N, 18°E) near the northern border of the Sahel, it is known to be the most vigorous source for dust over the entire globe.
   

Monday, August 27, 2012

Africans in the '60s - Liberation and Neil Armstrong's Moon Landing

The sad news of Neil Armstrong's passing offers a chance to revisit how much the idea of space travel and race to land a man on the moon also had a powerful hold over the popular imagination of many Africans in the 1960s. One example, of course, is grade-school science teacher Edward Makuka Nkoloso's Zambian space program and its proposed mission to Mars on the eve of Zambian independence in 1964.

Hinted in Alexis Madrigal's blog post about Nkoloso is a sense of the end of liberation struggle, Zambia's independence day celebrations and, perhaps, the same kind of naiveté, optimism and euphoria we've seen frozen and capsuled by photographers like Philippe Koudjina and Malick Sidebe in the black and white pictures they took of Malian youth in that hopeful time.

The same optimism is captured in a different way in the two 5 mins excerpts below from Congolese auteur  Balufu Bakupa-Kanyinda's 2009 short film, We Too Walked on the Moon (Nous aussi avons marché sur la lune), which uses the 1969 American Apollo 11 mission that landed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the moon as the year and the backdrop for an interesting glimpse at middle class Congolese lives -- a teacher, a doctor and an artist.



In the film we get to see each person experience the radio broadcast of the moon landing differently, with the artist (you can see that in the 2nd excerpt) eventually deciding that he must also walk on the moon.



With the news and discussion of a moon landing as a reminder of the technological chasm between Africa and the West, Olivier Barlet's  review over at Africultures, I think, touches the core of Bakupa-Kanyinda's film (Google auto translation + mine):
The film revolves between poems by Aime Cesaire and the Congolese poet Tshiakatumba Mukadi, recited by students under the direction of their teacher.... A slow tracking shot shows various portraits tacked above the blackboard, revealing many major African figures, including Obama, confirming them as sources of inspiration.... For an Africa that suffers from an inferiority complex inherited from the mental integration of its alleged backwardness, the message is simple: be the image of those of you who believed in themselves.
This post is a reworked version of a previous post from July 2nd 2010.  


Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Robotics Research in South Africa



Keith Campbell writes in Engineering News about South African's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and its research in "niche areas" where robotics may be of help to South Africans.
South Africa cannot remotely match the scale of these investments – military or civil. Yet, the country cannot ignore field robotics either. It is becoming too important, too dynamic – a field relevant to many areas of human endeavour. Consequently, the CSIR is undertaking research into field robotics through the formation of the Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems (Mias) group. “This is an emerging research area for the CSIR, so it is different from a competence area,” explains Mias group leader Dr Simukai Utete. “Our group targets niche areas which address national needs – niche areas which are of relevance to [our] society. We are very concerned about capacity development in robotics.”
Why the area of "field robotics"?
They just do their tasks. Field robotics is relatively new. Field robots are in-between industrial robots and science-fiction. They operate in unstructured environments but in limited roles. They can act autonomously. Some can operate with people safely. Some have limited learning ability,” explains mining robotics project manager Liam Candy. The group has projects in the field of mining robotics, vehicle robotics, intelligent manipulation and active vision for autonomous systems.
 H/T: allAfrica

Saturday, August 13, 2011

Namibia: Language Shaping how we Think - Himbas and Color Perception

The Guardian's Sam Wollaston in his review of the section below from the BBC documentary, Horizon: Do You See What I See, which aired last week:
The language thing was the most extraordinary for me. A scientist travels to northern Namibia to visit the Himba tribe, who have many fewer words for colour and who classify them in completely different ways. He shows them a circle of squares, all green except one which is clearly blue to me and you (unless you're one of my Himba readers). And they can't pick it out, simply because in their language it's the same colour .... 
The Himba might not have a separate word for blue, but watch them select, without breaking a sweat, the different hue of green among other greens English speakers will have a hard time spotting:



Boing Boing has a whole lot more.

Over here, we are interested in the whole notion of language shaping thought structures, especially since most Africans end up having to master many languages. For example, a South African opera singer talks about moving between xhosa, latin and french -  here . Or a recent study that suggests you can shift the responses of Moroccans by simply switching the language (Arabic and French) by which you describe the subject - here.

Like with a whole range of colors, many African languages don't have words for a lot of scientific terms  - an issue blogged here. So its always thrilling to rewatch this '09 video of Ethiopians coming up with Amharic words for the elements on the periodic table:


H/T: Kyle

Monday, February 21, 2011

Africa: Debunking the Humanity Came "Out of Africa" Theory



With new findings giving more credence to multiregional theory of human evolution--i.e. a gradualism theory that says evolution takes place over wide areas under natural selection and whenever there is a new feature that's an advantage it spreads among the species, an alternative to the homo erectus coming out of Africa with evolutionary advantages that helped it replace other species--above, science blogger Razib Khan talks to an early skeptic of the humans came "out of Africa" hypothesis, University of Michigan paleoanthropologist Milford Wolpoff. Below is a clip from Nova's "Last Human Standing" documentary, based on the "Out of Africa" theory and provides some more backstory and illustration of the homo erectus migration out of Africa to other parts of the world:

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

DRC/South Africa: Nuclear Programs

Excerpt from a U.S diplomatic cable (published December 19th) assessing security at the Kinshasa Nuclear Research Center (CREN-K), which houses the DRC's two nuclear reactors:
While neither the Triga I or Triga II reactors function, CREN-K's nuclear scientists continue to work. They conduct agricultural research (such as irradiating and mutating corn), study nuclear medicine, produce isotopes, analyze and identify neutron material, study radiography and teach University of Kinshasa students physics and nuclear science...Professor Lumu, who runs the facility, told Emboffs he wants to restart the nuclear reactor. Lumu has been lobbying the international community to provide the necessary funds and technology to do this. Lumu said he plans to use the reactor to study x-ray detraction, radiology, agronomy, gamma irradiation, nuclear medicine, environmental science and radiation protection...Because CREN-K's security is poor, it is relatively easy for someone to break into the nuclear reactor building or the nuclear waste storage building and steal rods or nuclear waste, with no greater tool than a lock cutter. It would also be feasible to pay a CREN-K employee to steal nuclear material. It is imperative that the international community find a way to help better secure the facility, even if GDRC remains unwilling to give up its fuel rods. Priority funding needs are new fencing, proper nuclear waste storage and disposal and security training.
Still on nuclear research, AlJazeera posted a few days ago a look at South Africa's scientists--SA's one of the world's biggest suppliers of medical isotopes--using technology from the country's apartheid era nuclear weapons programme to now pioneer the use of extracting molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) from low-enriched (LEU), rather than highly-enriched, uranium. According to a Dec 9th Homeland Security News wire, "The United States has just taken delivery of the first shipment of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) made from LEU. It was made by the South Africa Nuclear Energy Corporation at its Safari-1 reactor at Pelindaba":

Saturday, December 11, 2010

Africa: "Why Haven't We Seen More Disruptive, Important Tech Companies Coming Out Of the Emerging World?"



Tim Wu (Columbia Law School) thinks these "emerging world" telcom markets aren't really free yet + their AT&Ts or incumbent carriers haven't yet been dismantled like we saw in the U.S' in the 80s, hence leveling the field and freeing up ICT innovation. Sarah Lacy (TechCruch) points the finger at the nature of the Silicon Valley venture capital/funding eco-system.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Africa/India: The Myth of Scaling When it Comes to ICT4D



So much aid money to burn in the face of the intractable nature of human development problems seems to drive the hunger for a panacea for, or for one or two magic bullets to the dome of, development, hence building myths and wrong expectations around development solutions - i.e information and communication technologies. Former Microsoft director of research, India, Kentaro Toyama, talks above at TEDX Tokyo about misconceptions about technology's abilities and the myth that by scaling technology for development, we can solve complex global problems. Over at the Boston Review's "Can Technology End Poverty?" forum, he writes:
If I were to summarize everything I learned through research in ICT4D, it would be this: technology—no matter how well designed—is only a magnifier of human intent and capacity. It is not a substitute. If you have a foundation of competent, well-intentioned people, then the appropriate technology can amplify their capacity and lead to amazing achievements. But, in circumstances with negative human intent, as in the case of corrupt government bureaucrats, or minimal capacity, as in the case of people who have been denied a basic education, no amount of technology will turn things around. The myth of scale is the religion of telecenter proponents, who believe that bringing the Internet into villages is enough to transform them. Technology is a magnifier in that its impact is multiplicative, not additive, with regard to social change. In the developed world, there is a tendency to see the Internet and other technologies as necessarily additive, inherent contributors of positive value. But their beneficial contributions are contingent on an absorptive capacity among users that is often missing in the developing world. Technology has positive effects only to the extent that people are willing and able to use it positively. The challenge of international development is that, whatever the potential of poor communities, well-intentioned capability is in scarce supply and technology cannot make up for its deficiency.
A formidable array of respondents - everyone from One Lap top per Child's Nicholas Negroponte to FP's Net Effect Evgeny Morozov.

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

Africa: Those Shady Bilingual Speakers

In the Harvard Gazette, Maya Shwayder writes up the broad brushstrokes of a study by Oludamini Ogunnaike, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Yarrow Dunham that suggests you can shift the responses of bilingual people by simply changing languages:
The researchers administered the Implicit Association Test (IAT)in two settings: once in Morocco, with subjects who spoke Arabic and French, and again in the United States, with Latinos who spoke English and Spanish.In Morocco, participants who took the IAT in Arabic showed greater preference for other Moroccans. When they took the test in French, that difference disappeared. Similarly, in the United States, participants who took the test in Spanish showed a greater preference for other Hispanics. But again, in English, that preference disappeared.“It was quite shocking to see that a person could take the same test, within a brief period of time, and show such different results,” Ogunnaike said. “It’s like asking your friend if he likes ice cream in English, and then turning around and asking him again in French and getting a different answer.”
We wonder how this plays in with code switching. Whatever side of linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf's line in the sand you belong [i.e. language is so powerful that it can determine thought vs. language may affect thought processes, but doesn’t influence thought itself], some weeks go on BH, Stanford University's Lera Boroditsky was discussing the influence of the structures of different languages on how we process thoughts about the same event:

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Zambia: Postcolonial Sci-Fi

Zambia marked its independence day 2 days ago and over at the Atlantic's tech blog Alexis Madrigal digs up the story and video of a Zambian space program in 1964 spearheaded by a grade-school science teacher Edward Makuka Nkoloso. Nkoloso claimed he heads the Zambia National Academy of Science, Space Research and Philosophy and wanted 7 million pounds from UNESCO to fund his race to beat the Americans and Russians to the moon.


One of the links in Madrigal's post leads to this 1964 Time magazine article about the buzz leading up to Zambia's independence ceremonies, and mentions Nkoloso:
During the independence festivities only one noted Zambian failed to share in all the harmony. He is Edward Mukuka Nkoloso, a grade-school science teacher and the director of Zambia's National Academy of Science, Space Research and Philosophy, who claimed the goings-on interfered with his space program to beat the U.S. and the Soviet Union to the moon. Already

Friday, October 15, 2010

Friday



He is talking about how to replicat nature's modularity and swappability in gadgetry in order to make them open, hackable, exponentially swappable and endlessly reusable.

How bushpunk is that?

Kenya: Spirit of Bushpunk

Someone's weekends and six months worth of research on the internet led to his own Spirit of St. Louis:



Afrigadget has links to other aviation bushpunks. The bushpunk aspect of this?  Internet enabling open source access, recycle and cannibalization definitely top the list. Whether the guy's plane flies or not, it's clear open source is at the foundation of bushpunk and the plane feels like a first step in Humblemanufacture advocate Dominic Muren's old thoughts about bushpunk:
Stop imagining these Bushpunk innovators as dark-skinned people in faraway deserts. Now imagine instead that they are perpetually unemployed people in Detroit or Philadelphia; Imagine they are old guard hippies who have given up fossil fuels in Seattle or San Fransisco; Imagine that they are self sufficient ranchers in Colorado, Idaho, or Iowa. Take away the bush, and you've still got a valid need. No matter where we are, we are realizing that we want (even need) the function of high technology, but cannot afford to pay the costs, particularly in terms of fossil fuel use, or excessive energy consumption of any kind. We need the root-hair technologies, accessible on a local or regional level, that can afford us these functions. This is what Humblefacture aims to do for manufacturing: Not to send us back to hand craft for the sake of increasing labor, but to empower more people to seize the reins of their situation, whether they are at the top of the pyramid, or the bottom. The humble in Humblefacture makes it malleable: it is the "punk" waiting to be defined as Bush, Bio, Steam, or Cyber by the situation and people who adopt it.
Apart from open access, the internet further empowers future bushpunks who will help innovate the way through that chasm between the needs of hi tech gadgets and a low-fi world by helping connect innovators and factories in the new scaled down landscape of manufacture:

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Africa: T'Challa, Cont'd



When comparing the Black Panther "welcome to wakanda" preview (above) from the soon to debut New Avengers animated series to the Reginald Hudlin/ Denys Cowan Black Panther BET series, the wise folks over at blacksuperherofan and shadow & act seem to be caught in a saturday morning cartoon time warp. C'mon guys. Motion comics and pitiful distribution aside, the BET series still kicked ass. Even if just for its stilted speeches and wishful pan-Africanist politics :-)



Friday, October 8, 2010

Brazil/ Africa: Chasing Cerrados

Back in August, the Economist put up a kick ass article on how Brazil's Agricultural Research Corporation/ Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)--the world’s leading tropical-research institution--turned the cerrado--Brazil's once upon a time nutrient poor back lands--green. In the article, one of the things EMBRAPA did to achieve that was:
Embrapa went to Africa and brought back a grass called brachiaria. Patient crossbreeding created a variety, called braquiarinha in Brazil, which produced 20-25 tonnes of grass feed per hectare, many times what the native cerrado grass produces and three times the yield in Africa. That meant parts of the cerrado could be turned into pasture, making possible the enormous expansion of Brazil’s beef herd. Thirty years ago it took Brazil four years to raise a bull for slaughter. Now the average time is 18-20 months.
Below, EMBRAPA's Jose Bellini from EMBRAPA's Accra office, introducing Brazil-Africa agriculture cooperation in technology development and capacity building at at a CGIAR meeting in Addis Ababa, back in August.



The Economist then asks...can "...the miracle of the cerrado be exported, especially to Africa, where the good intentions of outsiders have so often shriveled and died?" In response, it clarifies the difference btw a systemic versus magic-bullet approach to the problem:
Brazil’s agricultural miracle did not happen through a simple technological fix. No magic bullet accounts for it—not even the tropical soyabean, which comes closest. Rather, Embrapa’s was a “system approach”, as its scientists call it: all the interventions worked together. Improving the soil and the new tropical soyabeans were both needed for farming the cerrado; the two together also made possible the changes in farm techniques which have boosted yields further. Systems are much harder to export than a simple fix. “We went to the US and brought back the whole package [of cutting-edge agriculture in the 1970s],” says Dr Crestana. “That didn’t work and it took us 30 years to create our own. Perhaps Africans will come to Brazil and take back the package from us. Africa is changing. Perhaps it won’t take them so long. We’ll see.” If we see anything like what happened in Brazil itself, feeding the world in 2050 will not look like the uphill struggle it appears to be now.
Sustainable agricultural development talks a lot about empowering the small farmer. In the case of Brazil, a commenter observed:
Brazil knows that small farmers cannot manage the challenges of credit, technology and marketing. In the northeast the new generation of irrigation projects is experimenting with a model of reverse concessions, with the primary weight in the bidding process going to ways in which the "anchor enterprise" incorporates small farmers in the productive chain in about 30% of the area being concessioned. This is another creative way Brazilian agriculture is attempting to charter new territory.

Friday, July 16, 2010

Friday



Above, Richard Florida, director of The Martin Prosperity Institute, University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management, talks about the world in 2050 and future urban agglomerations that will dwarf all we've seen so far. And speaking of all we've seen so far, check out the reverse time lapse below, part of the Mammoths and Mastadons exhibit at The Field Museum in Chicago. The time lapse visually unwinds a patch of urban real estate through the last 20,000 years:



by Greg Mercer and Emily Ward and David Quednau

Thursday, June 3, 2010

Burkina Faso/ USA: Albinism - X Files Flashback "Teliko"

This NYT report from '08 on albino killings in Tanzania pointed out that threats to people with albinism are dire in the rural Africa "where people tend to be less educated and more superstitious." Hence, in rural areas, the myths surrounding albinism know no bounds: everything from fishermen lining their nets with an albino's hair because some witchdoctor says it will net them a better catch to those harvesting albino body parts for wealth or sleeping with someone with albinism as a cure against HIV-AIDs. This blog has covered some of the economics -  here. But superstition is not an African thing; rather it is a poverty meets ignorance meets a loss of control over life thing, creating a situation in the present in which the voices of the past and antiquated ways of understanding the world remain formidble - this 1976 Ebony article on superstitious America couldn't be funkier, no?

However, one of those rare instances wherein a rural African superstition or folktale about albinism makes it all the way to American TV screens was the 1996 X Files episode, Teliko, from back in season 4 (if you have bandwidth to spare, the full bootleg of the episode after the jump):


X Files "Teliko," Eps 3, Season 4 (1996) 

According to the episode, "Teliko" refers to a race of "evil albinos" who can concoct their bodies to fit into the tiniest spaces and who prey on black males, sucking them of their pigmentation. In the episode, when the U.S. Burkinabe ambassador (played by the always brilliant South African actor, Zakes Mokae, who passed away  last year) saw the picture taken of a victim found onboard a flight from Africa...


David Duchovny and Zakes Mokae in  X Files "Teliko," Eps 3, Season 4 (1996)

...he told Mulder he knew "Teliko" was here, and fueled by the fact that no one would believe him, he immediately covered it up and had the body flown back, no questions asked. There is nothing I can say about the use of the "evil albino" stereotype in American popular culture that you can't find in this rather

Saturday, May 1, 2010

Nigeria: Harvard Law Email Clusterf@#k - Super Villians of the Modern Age, Cont'd

By now we are sure everyone on the planet has been face-booked in or re-tweeted the 3rd year Harvard Law School student's infamous email treatise on genetics, race and why blacks are dumb.

From what we can make out, she sent the email to a few friends in what has now ended up an unwise attempt on her part to clarify some points she made at an earlier dinner conversation about how blacks might be genetically predisposed to having fewer brain cells than whites, or at least how the "science" that posits this bell curve hypothesis of racial genetic disparity deserves closer scrutiny. A friend who took offense to her toutured nature vs. nuture email then hit "forward," the internet hit "viral" and, well, all crap hit the fan for our burgeoning lawyer-geneticist (you can get her full name and pic - here), who we hear is already in line for a federal court clerkship for some judge on the ninth circuit. The part of her email that however caught our eye was her use of Nigeria as some ridiculous extreme of nature, like we tend to do with "Timbuktu" when trying to describe an absurd extreme in relation to distance. She goes:
...This suggests to me that some part of intelligence is genetic, just like identical twins raised apart tend to have very similar IQs and just like I think my babies will be geniuses and beautiful individuals whether I raise them or give them to an orphanage in Nigeria. I don’t think it is that controversial of an opinion to say I think it is at least possible that African Americans are less intelligent on a genetic level, and I didn’t mean to shy away from that opinion at dinner... (full email here
So I take it that what we are testing for here is "intelligence," right? Which makes Harvard law student emailer and part time geneticist raising her own kids the control group and orphanages in Nigeria the test group, right? It would be funny to see a scenario where Nigerian orphanages actually refuse to take her kids, claiming they might be too dumb to survive one day on the streets of Lagos. But, d'oh, we've already been accused of wasting our genetically inferior brain cells on any of this, so like everyone else we point you to Feministe for the brutal takedown/ dissussion.

Oh, and the reason for this post? Like we've observed before, it is interesting to see how "Nigeria" or something "Nigerian" related is steadly becoming the go to conceptual metaphor or illustration in the American imaginary for any absurd or extremely ridiculous option .

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

Africa: "Despite Centuries of Scientific Undertakings on the Continent, There is Still No Vernacular Word for 'Science'"?

A study from Thomson Reuters released today yesterday shows South Africa, followed by Egypt and Nigeria are responsible for most of the African science research being done -- as a share of world publications -- in fields that are relevant to natural resources. One of the points also raised was:
There is a marked interaction between researchers in the countries in North Africa which share both language and culture.
The point dovetails into the recent article --from where we got the title to this post --at sci.dev.net by Charles Dhewa about the need to "domesticate" science by using Africa's vernacular languages to talk about it:
Yet despite centuries of scientific undertakings on the continent, there is still no vernacular word for 'science'. In Southern Africa, science remains a minority, English-language based, pursuit that reinforces the domination of English at the expense of local languages such as Ndebele, Swahili and many others. This marginalisation of African languages and practices means much local knowledge is lost. Many innovations by farmers and rural communities are excluded from modern science and technology (S&T) because there are no local terms or expressions to capture them. It is vital for ordinary people to be able to participate in science innovation. Moving the large body of indigenous knowledge into mainstream S&T systems will help address pressing development issues on the continent.

African policymakers must make an effort to 'domesticate' science by using vernacular languages to talk about it. This means investing in translation activities. To achieve this we must strengthen the role of intermediaries with specialist communication skills — people who can translate and summarise complex S&T ideas in local languages and explain both the concepts and implications with simplicity. Such people are sometimes called 'integrators', 'filters' and 'synthesisers'.
And with the whole idea of wikis, open source and fast broadband networks enabling video, dubbing or captioning, suddenly the idea of knowledge building by talking about science using local languages actually seems doable and, even more importantly, sustainable. Not to mention that it also gives a whole new meaning to sustainable science development. The video below looks at scientific knowledge building using wikis and other web 2.0 tools to pass along agriculture methods at the local level, but it also hints at how one could pass along science at the local level if there was the language to talk about it:

Thursday, April 8, 2010

South Africa: A Race for the SKA

VOA's TV2Africa brings us up to speed on South Africa's bid to be the location (rather than Australia) for the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - an international radio telescope with one hundred times more collecting area than the Very Large Array.



...Diamond Fields Advertiser (31 March) as a race update, which explains why SA is well in the lead, but...

Wednesday, March 24, 2010

Sudan: Futuristic Humanitarian Design?

Emily Pillton - here - explaining what humanitarian design is. I don't know if the conceptual art below counts as humanitarian design, but according to this gallery of pics over at Inhabitat:
Darfur has long been plagued by significant droughts, however in 2007 scientists at Boston University discovered the region has one of the biggest underwater lakes in the world. Putting these two facts together, Polish firm H3AR designed an incredible water-harvesting skyscraper that would draw H20 from underground and create an artificial lake!

These pumps take the water from the aquifer, pump it throughout the building to heat it and cool it, and store it within the core of the building itself.

One word - awesome. The only problem though is they remind us of those bird killing "black out" towers revealed in this episode of Flashforward:



More on the episode - here

H/T: I09

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